More on the quasi-invocation to Book IV, and about Miltonic ambiguity: two different ways of coming to the same end. Here either he or God could have produced the saving voice: it doesn't matter. But neither of them does, despite the fact that John of Patmos hears a voice from the future. Invocation and prayer are similar: the request is self-granting. But not in Book IV. We then consider Satan's use of necessity, the tyrant's plea, and compare it to God's.

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